Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy-related sources, such as power plants, cement factories, and oil refineries, and storing it in geological formations underground or in the ocean. The primary goal of CCS is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.
The process of CCS typically consists of three steps: capture, transport, and storage.
Step One: Carbon capture
In the capture stage, they separate CO2 using various technologies such as chemical solvents, membranes, or adsorbents. The captured CO2 is then compressed and transported through pipelines or ships to storage sites.
Step Two: Carbon Transport
Companies can transport safely carbon dioxide captured from industrial processes or power plants in pipelines, ships, and tanker trucks.
The CO2 is compressed and stored in high-pressure containers equipped with safety features such as pressure relief valves to prevent over-pressurization.
During transportation, they monitor the containers to ensure that they are not leaking. The transportation is according to local, national, and international regulations for the safe transport of hazardous materials.
Step Three: Carbon storage
Geological storage is the most widely used method of CCS. The process means the injection of CO2 deep underground into rock formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline aquifers.
Storage of CO2 in these formations is because prevents it from leaking back into the atmosphere. It is due to the pressure and temperature conditions. The storage of CO2 in the ocean is another potential method, but it is still in the early stages of research and development.
Crucial technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions
We consider CCS a crucial technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector, which is responsible for the majority of emissions globally.
Integration of CCS is possible into power stations that burn fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas. This process is prior to capturing emissions before releasing them into the atmosphere. These facilities are substantial sources of CO2 emissions.
Challenges during the carbon capture process
One of the challenges of CCS is the cost of capturing and storing CO2, which makes the technology economically unfeasible for many companies. However, governments around the world are investing in the research and development of CCS. There are efforts to reduce the costs of the technology through advancements in capture and storage techniques.
Another challenge of CCS is public perception, as there are concerns about the potential risks of underground storage. Primarily, it means possible leaks or earthquakes that could release CO2 back into the atmosphere. Despite these concerns, the potential benefits of CCS in mitigating climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions have led to increasing interest in the technology globally.
In short, CCS is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. It involves capturing CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources and storing it underground or in the ocean. The technology is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges related to cost and public perception. However, governments and private companies are investing in CCS. They expect technological advancements to increase its use in the future.